He believed that the objective of moral education is the reinforcement of children to grow from one stage to an upper stage. Dilemma was a critical tool that he emphasized that children should be presented with; yet also, the knowledge for children to cooperate. These are preconventional morality, conventional morality, and postconventional morality. In this stage people, usually young children, avoid certain behaviors only because of the fear of punishment, not because they see them as wrong.
Teacher’s personality i.e., his social and moral attitudes, habits, interests, values and beliefs, discipline in the school maintained through love, affection, sympathy, personal example of teacher exercises positive influence in moral development of students. Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a.
Abstract Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions.
As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions.
Several new areas of research are highlighted: In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions—elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process—other-oriented empathy.
This review summarizes current theory and research on moral emotions, offering a framework for thinking about the ways in which morally relevant emotions may moderate the link between moral standards and moral decisions, and ultimately moral behavior.
Living a moral, constructive life is defined by a weighted sum of countless individual, morally relevant behaviors enacted day in and day out plus an occasional particularly self-defining moment.
As imperfect human beings, however, our behavior does not always bear a one-to-one correspondence to our moral standards. Many potential explanations exist for the discrepancy between behavioral decisions intentions and actual behavior in both moral and nonmoral domains.
Historically, much social psychological theory and research was devoted to understanding the imperfect link between intentions e. As with the link between intentions and behaviors in general, the link between moral intentions and moral behaviors is likewise an important issue.
However, owing to space limitations, this chapter focuses on the processes further upstream from intentions: The current review emphasizes cognitive and emotional processes relevant to the more cross-culturally invariant moral standards.
Naturally, people do, on occasion, lie, cheat, and steal, even though they know such behavior is deemed wrong by moral and societal norms. Moral emotions represent an important but often overlooked element of our human moral apparatus. We also consider several positively valenced moral emotions—elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride.
In addition, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process— empathy. This self-evaluation may be implicit or explicit, consciously experienced or transpiring beneath the radar of our awareness.
But importantly, the self is the object of these self-conscious emotions. As the self reflects upon the self, moral self-conscious emotions provide immediate punishment or reinforcement of behavior.
In effect, shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride function as an emotional moral barometer, providing immediate and salient feedback on our social and moral acceptability. When we sin, transgress, or err, aversive feelings of shame, guilt, or embarrassment are likely to ensue. Moreover, actual behavior is not necessary for the press of moral emotions to have effect.
People can anticipate their likely emotional reactions e. Thus, the self-conscious moral emotions can exert a strong influence on moral choice and behavior by providing critical feedback regarding both anticipated behavior feedback in the form of anticipatory shame, guilt, or pride and actual behavior feedback in the form of consequential shame, guilt, or pride.The history of reflection on moral responsibility demonstrates that how one interprets the concept of moral responsibility strongly influences one's overall account of moral responsibility.
For example, those who accept the merit-based conception of moral responsibility have tended to be incompatibilists. Ethics. The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.
Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Teacher’s personality i.e., his social and moral attitudes, habits, interests, values and beliefs, discipline in the school maintained through love, affection, sympathy, personal example of teacher exercises positive influence in moral development of students.
sufficient unto itself; however, responsibility can also include moral obliga-tions that are in addition and usually related to the functional obligations of the role.
Thus, responsibility assumes that the actor becomes also a moral agent possessed of a certain level of moral maturity and an ability to reason. Empathy has become a common point of debate in moral psychology. Recent developments in psychiatry, neurosciences and social psychology have led to the revival of sentimentalism, and the ‘empathy thesis’ has suggested that affective empathy, in .
Subject’s punishment judgments are of particular interest because several prominent theories in the attribution literature claim that punishment follows from the attribution of blame or moral responsibility to an agent (Fincham and Roberts, , Shultz et al., , Weiner, ).