By interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar SAR images acquired between andwe measure exceptionally rapid deformation. Although the rate of deformation was negligible from January to February, it accelerated some time before January. The high rate of deformation is confirmed by daily estimates of position during several months inas measured by analysis of signals transmitted by the Global Positioning System GPS and received on the ground at three stations around the reservoir forming the LdM.
This paper reviews basic information about earthquakes studies in Colombia, such as primary sources, compilation of descriptive catalogues and parametric catalogues. During the last 20 years, great earthquakes hit Colombia and, as consequence, historical seismology investigation was developed in the frame of seismic hazard projects.
Most of the studies carried out for Colombian strong earthquakes give information only on epicentral coordinates and magnitude. Moreover, incomplete reports of building damage in the main affected cities conclude sometimes in a layout of incomplete isoseismal maps.
The first scientific effort to map the earthquakes with epicentres in Colombian territory was carried out by the geographer Francisco Javier Vergara y Velasco Vergara y Velasco, a; Vergara y Velasco, bwho published the first seismological map of the country and wrote some notes on its historical seismicity Vergara y Velasco, Many investigators consider him the father of seis- 1.
Introduction The Colombian territory located in the northwestern corner of South America, is the place of convergence of three lithospheric plates: Nazca, Caribbean and South American. The movement of these plates produces large deformation zones characterized by the presence of different types of geologic faults Paris et al.
The region surrounding these faults has produced several destructive earthquakes in the past centuries. The most significant earthquake in casualties and financial loss occurred on 20 January in the coffee growing region Armenia earthquakewith magnitude 6. Recent contributions to the knowledge of the seismic history of Colombia have been made by Espinosa who has also partially revised the seismic catalogues.
New seismic events, previously ignored Espinosa, b-dhave been included in the catalogues and at the same time some doubtful seismic events were discarded, after being recognized as other type of natural events Espinosa, e-f. In the middle of the century there were historical sources as Boussingault,Acosta and international scientists such as Montessus de Ballore and others, who collected and catalogued seismic data.
The main earthquake quoted by Vargas Jurado occurred on 18 October and was felt in Bogota, surrounding areas and the eastern Colombian region Vargas Jurado, This work is the oldest site catalogue in Colombia.
The year, month, hour and sometimes the effects and duration of the earthquakes are provided in chronological order. In the military campaign, Caballero wrote in his daily personal notes from towithin which are found the descriptions of the effects caused by great and small earthquakes in Santa Fe de Bogota.
When the war finished inCaballero continued his diary adding information on previous events in Santa Fe de Bogota among which are the and earthquakes that were very destructive.
His compilation includes Earthquakes outside the city of Santa Fe de Bogota are also described, for instance the Honda earthquake inlocated in the region of the middle Magdalena valley in Colombia. This document was published in Caballero, The first synthesis of Colombian historical seismology was written in fig.
Vergara y Velasco was a high-grade of- 2. Early compilations During the first century of Spanish colonial times, only special chroniclers and curious persons dedicated their time to narrate what occurred in the towns seriously affected by earthquakes.
Early compilations of Colombian historical earthquakes are found in personal notes and autobiographies, containing information on earthquake records in different time periods, made by some foreign scientists and a few nationals, with sufficient education and interest in science and history, who dedicated themselves to recording and describing the earthquakes felt in their own localities.
As a result of this study, a chronological compilation of textual descriptions of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions from to the end of the 19th century, was obtained. He published the first seismological map of Colom- bia, which includes the epicentres from his catalogue Vergara y Velasco, a.
The first investigations Between to research on regional historical seismology were made by different Fig. Family tree of the contribution to the seismic history and specific earthquakes in Colombia before For 38 years, he served as Director of this institution and he is considered one of the pioneers of seismology in Colombia.
He produced studies about some individual earthquakes from to fig. This document is divided into three parts: Correa published a paper about damage caused by great earthquakes in Boyaca region, among which are the, and earthquakes Correa, Parametric catalogues in Colombia.
Some of these sources give a relatively good description of damage, others give a highly accurate timing but only report that the earthquake was felt in distant places with no information of damage. Historical compilations are quoted as for example Caballero and Febres Cordero If the damage and effects were greater in one locality than in the other the epicentre was located at a distance inversely proportional to such effects.
Epicentres of earthquakes that occurred in bordering countries Ecuador, Panama, Peru and Venezuelawhose effects were felt in Colombia, are included. Earthquake parametric catalogues 3. This catalogue includes a total of events table I.Notas para el capitule Introducción de Apuntes de etnografia y arqueologia de la provincia de Entre Rîos.
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