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PDF Abstract Recent advances in behavioral genetics suggest a modest relationship among certain gene variants, early childhood experiences, and criminal behavior.
Although scientific research examining this link is still at an early stage, genetic data are already being introduced in criminal trials.
In the present study, a representative sample of the U. The participants were asked to identify the crime that the defendant had committed and to select an appropriate sentence range. Evidence of genetic predisposition did not affect the crime of which the defendant was convicted or the sentence.
These findings should allay concerns that genetic evidence in criminal adjudications will be overly persuasive Credibility and impact exploring the internet jurors, but should raise questions about the impact of genetic attributions on perceptions of dangerousness. Prevention and punishment of crime are major societal concerns.
As evidence accumulated over the past several decades to suggest that genetic variables make a substantial contribution to the risk of criminal behavior, defense attorneys began attempting to introduce genetic test results to seek exculpation or mitigation for their clients.
Even before the studies identifying particular genes as the locus of an effect on criminal behavior, there was good reason to believe that genetic factors play a role in predisposition to such behavior. Sibling and twin studies have provided evidence of familial aggregation of criminal activity and suggest that genetic factors account for approximately 40 to 50 percent of the variance in transmission.
After evidence suggestive of a link between reduced MAOA activity and criminal behavior in an extended Dutch pedigree, 6 Caspi et al.
Examining high- and low-activity polymorphisms in the promoter region of the gene on the X chromosome, they found no effect of MAOA genotype, per se, but did find evidence of an interaction between a history of childhood maltreatment and MAOA status. Subjects with an allele associated with reduced MAOA production who had a history of childhood maltreatment comprised only 12 percent of the sample, but accounted for 44 percent of convictions for violent crime.
Subsequent studies in males have largely confirmed, 8—18 but in some cases failed to confirm, 19—24 these findings. Integration of the corpus of results is complicated by variation in methods and measures across groups; however, meta-analyses support the association between MAOA and antisocial behavior by maltreated children.
Within only a few years of the initial report of a link between MAOA and antisocial behavior in humans, the legal profession was aware of the data and began to explore its implications for the criminal justice system.
Hopes were expressed that such data could support claims for exculpation or leniency in sentencing on the grounds of reduced capacity to control behavior, 29 perhaps undermining traditional legal notions of free will 30 and contributing to a reorientation of the criminal justice system from punishment to rehabilitation.
Some forensic evaluators began to obtain MAOA data routinely in serious criminal cases, 33 and reports appeared of sentence reductions on the basis of genetic evidence in the United States 34 and Italy. Genetic information is being introduced for a wide range of purposes, including support for diagnostic conclusions and arguments for mitigation.
Analogous data regarding the impact of other kinds of neuroscientific information have led to conflicting results. One widely cited study suggested that neuroscientific information, even when irrelevant to the issue in question, lent credibility to poor explanations of behavioral phenomena, although it did not further enhance the credibility of good explanations.
A few studies have explored the impact of data on behavioral genetics, per se, in contexts similar to those that would be found in criminal trials.
Not only does the public constitute the pool from which jurors are drawn, but even for sentencing determinations, which are not made by jurors in most states, 50 public views may guide the development of rules for the application of behavioral genetic data. Hence, this study was designed to assess the views of a representative sample of the U.
Our working hypothesis was that genetic information would have a substantial effect on public views of responsibility and punishment, reducing perceptions of responsibility and attenuating punishment.
Methods Participants The participant panel in this study was drawn by Knowledge Networks KNbased on sampled households from its KnowledgePanel, a probability-based web panel designed to be representative of the population of the United States.
Members of the KnowledgePanel are recruited through a combination of list-assisted, random-digit-dialing sampling techniques based on a sample frame of the U. A detailed description of panel recruitment procedures is available at: When invited to join the panel, households that informed recruiters that they had a home computer and Internet access were asked to take KN surveys using their own equipment and Internet connection.
Households without a computer or Internet access were offered a laptop computer and free Internet access in exchange for participation. The typical survey commitment for panel members is one survey per week or four per month, with a duration of 10 to 15 minutes per survey.
Incentive points per survey, redeemable for cash, are given to computer respondents for completing their surveys. Panel members provided with a laptop computer and free Internet access do not participate in this per survey, points-incentive program.
However, all panel members receive special incentive points for select surveys, to improve response rates, and for all longer surveys as modest compensation for the extra burden on their time.
Before drawing a sample for a particular study, known sources of deviation from an equal probability of selection e. A second adjustment is then made to correct for nonresponse and noncoverage bias in the overall panel membership, on the basis of distribution of demographic variables in the most recent Current Population Survey April conducted by the U.
Bureau of Labor Statistics and Bureau of the Census. Once the sample is selected, the survey fielded, and all study data collected and finalized, a poststratification process is used to adjust for any survey nonresponse as well as any noncoverage or under- and oversampling resulting from the study-specific sample design.Political marketing focuses on the analysis of: a) “The political content of the media b) The actors and agencies involved in the production of that content c) The impact of political media content on the audience and/or on policy development d) The impact of the political system of the media system e) The impact of the media system on the political system” In brief it includes direct marketing, e marketing, .
In view of this, this study seeks to bridge this gap in internet banking research in Sub-Saharan Africa by exploring the influence of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived credibilty, facilitating conditions and behavioural intention .
Learn about responsible investment: how environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues such as climate change, human rights and tax avoidance impact investments, and understand what you can do about it.
View Credibility_and_Impact_Exploring_the_Internet_and_Politics from HUM dfgsd at University of Phoenix. Title Credibility and Impact Exploring the Internet. The Internet has had a substantial impact on politics throughout this century.
It has reshaped the political landscape by allowing politicians to stay in the know and quickly respond to . The present study examined the roles of source credibility and others’ comments in audiences’ evaluations of online news by experimentally manipulating the source of online news stories and others’ comments on them.
The results show that source credibility did not produce significant effects on participants’ online news evaluations directly.