Contact us Writing Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Writing is not a language but a form of technology. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols, usually in the form of a formal alphabet.
Etymology[ edit ] Pidgin derives from a Chinese pronunciation of the English word business, and all attestations from the first half of the nineteenth century given in the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary mean 'business; an action, occupation, or affair' the earliest being from The term pidgin English "business English"first attested inshows the term in transition to referring to language, and by the s the term pidgin alone could refer to Pidgin English.
The term was coming to be used in the more general linguistic sense represented by this article by the s. For example, the name of the creole language Tok Pisin derives from the English words talk pidgin. Its speakers usually refer to it simply as "pidgin" when speaking English.
The term jargon has also been used to refer to pidgins, and is found in the names of some pidgins, such as Chinook Jargon. In this context, linguists today use jargon to denote a particularly rudimentary type of pidgin;  however, this usage is rather rare, and the term jargon most often refers to the words particular to a given profession.
Pidgins may start out as or become trade languages, such as Tok Pisin. Trade languages can eventually evolve into fully developed languages in their own right such as Swahilidistinct from the languages they were originally influenced by. Trade languages and pidgins can also influence an established language's vernacularespecially amongst people who are directly involved in a trade where that pidgin is commonly used, which can alternatively result in a regional dialect being developed.
Common traits[ edit ] Pidgins are usually less morphologically complex but more syntactically rigid than other languages, usually have fewer morphosyntactic irregularities than other languages. Characteristics shared by most pidgins: Typologically most closely resemble isolating languages Uncomplicated clausal structure e.
Reduction or elimination of syllable codas Reduction of consonant clusters or breaking them with epenthesis Elimination of aspiration or sound changes Monophthongization is common, employment of as few basic vowels as possible, such as [a, e, i, o, u] Lack of morphophonemic variation Lack of tonessuch as those found in West African, Asian and many North American Indigenous languages Lack of grammatical tense ; use of separate words to indicate tense, usually preceding the verb Lack of conjugation or declension Use of reduplication to represent pluralssuperlativesand other parts of speech that represent the concept being increased The initial development of a pidgin usually requires: Linguists sometimes posit that pidgins can become creole languages when a generation of children learn a pidgin as their first language,  a process that regularizes speaker-dependent variation in grammar.
Creoles can then replace the existing mix of languages to become the native language of a community such as the Chavacano language in the PhilippinesKrio in Sierra Leoneand Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea.
However, not all pidgins become creole languages; a pidgin may die out before this phase would occur e. Other scholars, such as Salikoko Mufweneargue that pidgins and creoles arise independently under different circumstances, and that a pidgin need not always precede a creole nor a creole evolve from a pidgin.
Pidgins, according to Mufwene, emerged among trade colonies among "users who preserved their native vernaculars for their day-to-day interactions". Creoles, meanwhile, developed in settlement colonies in which speakers of a European language, often indentured servants whose language would be far from the standard in the first place, interacted extensively with non-European slavesabsorbing certain words and features from the slaves' non-European native languages, resulting in a heavily basilectalized version of the original language.
These servants and slaves would come to use the creole as an everyday vernacular, rather than merely in situations in which contact with a speaker of the superstrate was necessary.
Many of these languages are commonly referred to by their speakers as "Pidgin".The Philosophy of Anthropology. The Philosophy of Anthropology refers to the central philosophical perspectives which underpin, or have underpinned, the dominant schools in anthropological thinking.
[email protected], 4, article 1 () - This article describes a classification scheme for computer-mediated discourse that classifies samples in terms of clusters of features, or “facets”. The goal of the scheme is to synthesize and articulate aspects of technical and social context that influence discourse usage in CMC environments.
JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Nov 20, · Dell Hymes, an influential scholar of linguistics and anthropology who helped pioneer the study of how people use language in their everyday lives, died .
Excerpted from a longer essay in progress. Adeline Koh and Roopika Risam recently started an open thread on DHPoco based around an observation by Martha Nell Smith about the politics of race and gender in the digital humanities.
I find these topics distinctly connected to questions about language and the relationship of various humanities fields. Communicative competence is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.
The term was coined by Dell Hymes in