It must be written in 3rd person. The abstract is a formal synopsis of your essay which explains the scope of your investigation and states the research question and conclusion.
Anyway I was hoping for some feedback of my intro and conclusion so here it is, any feedback would be much appreciated! The poverty issues in Britain in the early 20th Century were greatly improved post to the Great War.
The attitudes of the upper classes and government ministers towards poverty and the poor, previously to the Reforms, were very much a 'Laissez-Faire' outlook on to how the country should be run. They also felt that poverty was the fault of the poor and took no interest in helping them, it was thought that if the people were determined enough they would get themselves out of poverty on their own, some even stated that they did not "believe" in unemployment.
This opinion was evident in "Self-Help", the published works of Dr. Samuel Smiles, where he stated "heaven helps those who help themselves" and this was definitely not an unpopular view.
The passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act, although, at first, seemed like it was helping the poor, only really singled out the poor and made them feel victimized. The conditions in the workhouses were atrocious and ensured the occupants worked long hours and cruel punishments were enforced for any 'slackers', the workhouse was a place of last resort and some died before giving in and moving to the workhouse.
But as the end 19th Century grew nearer, attitudes also began to vary, this was partly due to the published works of both Charles Booth and Seebohm Rowntree. Booth worked in London and found that approx.
Rowntree based his study in the city of York, a very different location to that of Booth's study, and yet, the results remained the same and Rowntree found that approx. It was clear improvements were needed and that the government would really need to take a step forward and use their power to their advantage.
Rowntree also introduced the ideas of Primary Poverty, where the person did not get enough income to support themselves, and Secondary Poverty, where the person earned enough income but wasted the income on drink, gambling and other unnecessary habits.
As the facts of poverty became more well known, the attitudes towards poverty began to differ accordingly and a definite move away from individualism towards collectivism, where the idea that the state had a duty to look after the people of the United Kingdom was a key idea, occurred.
Another key part in the successful development of Britain was that finally, the electorate was being extended and more people from varied backgrounds were able to vote. This also meant that now the working class had the vote the political parties had to make an extra effort to ensure they would be getting the vote from the working class, to get their vote they would have to make sure that improvements were made which would benefit the newest addition to the electorate.
And with the working class now making up a fair percentage of the electorate, as expected, the popularity of the Labour party directly increased. The second point to consider was that Germany, Britain's most prominent rival, was much further ahead of its time than Britain with their state pension and sickness and accident insurance already working well.
With all these points to consider, the only answer was to introduce extreme reforms which would improve the lives of the people across the nation. The Liberal Reforms between were fairly effective, but still managed to miss out key points which would have decreased the amount of poverty hugely and could have even influenced the amount of unemployment post to the Great War.
The Act of was introduced to cover the temporary unemployment and it was not expected that the amount would increase after the war, leaving the taxation unable to cover the costs of the benefit and landing the government into trouble.
On the other hand, these reforms encouraged the move towards collectivism and leaving the attitude of 'Laissez-Faire' in the past. This was only a good thing for the country as it was the only way those in need would get the help they deserved from the government which previously were doing nothing and took on very much a individualist outlook.
Obviously, the Liberal Reforms were not the only reason for the creation of the Welfare State, but they were an important factor and the early stages of the Welfare State were visible in their reforms made during the period of The Liberal Reforms were also a prominent transition point between the old 'Laissez-Faire' attitudes and the what-would-be the 'Welfare State' but although this was a transition point, this did not mean the old opinion had vanished, many did not agree with being forced to pay towards something they had no choice about and the upper-classes often disliked 'giving' their money towards those who were too "lazy" to go out and earn money for themselves.
It was a fear that people may become reliant on the benefit and that they may not save for their old age as they know they will be guaranteed money because of this scheme. Winston Churchill [at the time a Liberal MP] managed to summarise the complete aims of the Liberal Reforms by stating "If we see a drowning man, we do not drag him to the shore.
Instead we provide help to allow him to swim ashore" and this is exactly what the Liberal Reforms, very nearly, did.The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4, word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article).
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Etymology. The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name Jiangning or Kiangning (江寧), whose former character Jiang (江, Yangtze) is the former part of the name Jiangsu and latter character Ning (寧, simplified form 宁; "Peace") is the short name of Nanjing.
All history essay footnotes must follow the Chicago Style Guide. This draft must be typed double spaced in 12 pt. Font and be as close to words as possible without going over the limit. The words includes the Introduction, Body, Conclusion, and any quotations.
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