Nowadays, you may keep track of your research electronically through your word processing program, an electronic spreadsheet or other means. An older method is to use 3-byinch bibliography and note cards to organize the sources you find and the information in them. Your teacher may assign these cards to teach you how to do research and cite your sources.
What Is a Citation? In research and writing, a citation is a brief reference to a source of published information, providing sufficient bibliographic detail to enable the reader to locate a copy of the source if copies exist. A citation that does not provide the minimum amount of information is considered incomplete.
Citations found in printed and electronic documents are not always correct--they may contain erroneous information, making it impossible for the researcher to locate the original source.
The elements included in a citation depend on the format of the material cited book, article, electronic document, etc. Citing Books A book citation can be distinguished from an article citation by the presence of 1 place of publication and 2 publisher. Also, the publication date for a book is usually given as the year, rather than the month and year, as may be the case for an issue of a periodical.
Citing Articles A citation for an article published in a periodical newspaper, magazine, or scholarly journal can be distinguished from a book citation by the presence of 1 the article title, 2 the journal title, 3 the volume number, and 4 inclusive page numbers.
A citation for a work essay, article, story, poem, etc. Essays on the Theory and Practice of Social Virtue. Citing Electronic Sources A citation for a document retrieved from an electronic database or online publication differs from a citation for an article published in print by the presence of an Internet address, usually the URL of the document at the time it was retrieved.
Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, Retrieved October 13,from http: Scholars and students cite to inform their readers of the sources used in their research and to credit individuals whose previous efforts have facilitated their work.
Plagiarism is the presentation of a little-known fact or an idea found in another source as if it were one's own, a serious breach of academic integrity. Promising careers in academia have foundered on a scholar's failure to give credit where credit was due, and many colleges and universities in the United States, including WCSU, consider plagiarism grounds for disciplinary action.
Citations are also used in indexes and abstracting services, bibliographies, and electronic databases that specialize in compiling lists of sources to facilitate research often in a specific discipline or field of study.
Because these tools are published by different publishing companies and citation style is not standardized, the same work may be cited slightly differently in one index or bibliography than in another, as these two examples illustrate: A foster care research agenda for the '90s.
Child Welfare, 73, The publisher's conventions of abbreviation are usually stated at the beginning of each index volume, often in a list of "Abbreviations of Periodicals Indexed. Citation Style Unfortunately for the student, there is no single standardized format for citations.
Different forms have evolved through usage in specific disciplines. The following citations, representing the same book, illustrate differences between the three styles: Leakey, Richard, and Roger Lewin. In search of what makes us human.
The Chicago Manual of Style: New York, Doubleday, This lack of uniformity can make life difficult for the student.
If you are writing a research paper for a particular course, the professor may require that a specific citation style be used for the assignment. Read the course syllabus carefully--if citation style is not specified in the syllabus, ask your instructor before investing time and effort in the formatting of your notes and bibliography.
If you are allowed to choose a citation style, then once you have made your decision, be sure to maintain the same style throughout the paper. Your instructor will expect consistency and may count any inconsistencies against you.
Style Guides Here is a list of published guides to citation style, available in print from the WCSU libraries, for use in citing sources published in print and online. To check out a guide at the Circulation Desk, you must present your barcoded student ID card.
Copies in reference may not be checked out, but you may use them on the premises and make photocopies of the pages you need. Copy machines are available on the first floor of the Haas Library near the CyberCafe and on the third floor.
A Manual for Authors and Editors.
Haas Ref QD 8. A Guide for Authors and Editors. Haas Ref R Providing educators and students access to the highest quality practices and resources in reading and language arts instruction.
Below are examples of source cards for two different kinds of sources. If you do not know how to create a source card for a source you are using, look at the tip sheet called Making a works cited list for guidance on which information you should be included.
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At the bottom of the card, write the first word from your bibliography card, most likely the author’s last name, and the page number from the source.
Place this text in parentheses. For example, write, “(Hawking 84),” though you won't use quotation marks on your card. ClassZone Book Finder. Follow these simple steps to find online resources for your book.