Socratic method Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", which he largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts such as the Good and Justice. It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Contemporary philosophy Despite the tradition of philosophical professionalism established during the Enlightenment by Wolff and Kant, philosophy in the 19th century was still created largely outside the universities.
Comte, Mill, Marx, Kierkegaard, and Schopenhauer were not professors, and only the German idealist school was rooted in academic life. Since the midth century, however, most well-known philosophers have been associated with academia.
Philosophers more and more employ a technical vocabulary and deal with specialized problems, and they write not for a broad intellectual public but for one another.
Professionalism also has sharpened the divisions between philosophical schools and made the questions of what philosophy is and what it ought to be matters of the sharpest controversy. Philosophy has become extremely self-conscious about its own method and nature. The most-significant divisions in 20th-century philosophy were influenced and intensified by geographic and cultural differences.
The tradition of clear logical analysis, inaugurated by Locke and Hume, dominated the English-speaking world, whereas a speculative and broadly historical tradition, begun by Hegel but later diverging radically from him, held sway on the European continent.
From the early decades of the century, the substantive as well as stylistic differences between the two approaches—known after World War II as analytic and Continental philosophy, respectively—gradually became more pronounced, and until the s few serious attempts were made to find common ground between them.
Other significant currents in 20th-century philosophy were the speculative philosophies of Henri Bergson — of France, John Dewey — of the United States, and Alfred North Whitehead — of England—each of whom evades easy classification—and the philosophical Marxism practiced from the early 20th century in parts of central Europe and the West, later including the United States and Latin America.
BergsonDeweyand Whitehead In his An Introduction to Metaphysics and in his masterpiece, Creative EvolutionBergson distinguished between two profoundly different ways of knowing: All basic metaphysical truths, Bergson held, are grasped by philosophical intuition.
Whereas Bergson and Whitehead were principally metaphysicians and philosophers of cultureDewey was a generalist who stressed the unity, interrelationship, and organicity of all forms of philosophical knowledge. He is chiefly notable for the fact that his conception of philosophy stressed so powerfully the notions of practicality and moral purpose.
Philosophy, he said, should be oriented not to professional pride but to human need. His pragmatic social theory is the first major political philosophy produced by modern liberal democracy.
Western Marxism The framework of 19th-century Marxismaugmented by philosophical suggestions from Leninserved as the starting point of all philosophizing in the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellites.
Subsequent traditional Marxism continued this practical concern, largely because it retained the basic Marxist conception of what philosophy is and ought to be. Marxism like pragmatism assimilated theoretical issues to practical needs. It asserted the basic unity of theory and practice by finding that the function of the former was to serve the latter.
Marx and Lenin both held that theory was always, in fact, expressive of class interests; consequently, they wished philosophy to be transformed into a tool for furthering the class struggle. The task of philosophy was not abstractly to discover the truth but concretely to forge the intellectual weapons of the proletariat.
Thus, philosophy became inseparable from ideology. There were two main forms of Marxism in the West: Western Marxism, however, was a repudiation of Marxism-Leninism—although, when it was first formulated in the s, its proponents believed that they were adhering to the doctrine of the Soviet Communist Party.
Western Marxism was shaped primarily by the failure of the socialist revolution in the Western world. Western Marxists were concerned less with the actual political or economic practice of Marxism than with its philosophical interpretation, especially in relation to cultural and historical studies.
In order to explain the inarguable success of capitalist society, they felt it necessary to explore and understand non-Marxist approaches and all aspects of bourgeois culture.
Marx had predicted that revolution would succeed in Europe first, but, in fact, the newly decolonized states of Africa and Asia proved more responsive.
Orthodox Marxism also championed the technological achievements associated with capitalism, viewing them as essential to the progress of socialism. Experience showed the Western Marxists, however, that technology did not necessarily produce the crises Marx described and did not lead inevitably to revolution.
In particular, they disagreed with the ideaoriginally emphasized by Engels, that Marxism is an integratedscientific doctrine that can be applied universally to nature; they viewed it as a critique of human life, not as an objective general science.
Later, when the working class appeared to them to be too well integrated into the capitalist system, the Western Marxists supported more-anarchistic tactics. Western Marxism found support primarily among intellectuals rather than the working class, and orthodox Marxists judged it impractical.
Henri Chambre David T. McLellan The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica The practical orientation of traditional Marxism was reflected in a set of Marxist-inspired approaches, liberation philosophy or the philosophy of liberationthat arose in Argentina in the early s.Earlier, we discussed why having a leadership philosophy is essential.
The importance is based on Character, Consistency, and Collaboration. Understanding the value may be the easy part. Part I: Introduction--What inspired my argumentative response? For decades, too many high-school teachers have been instilling persuasive writing skills by teaching students the five-paragraph essay.
For the Fall Job Market I am re-posting the essential job application posts. We’ve looked at the Cover Letter and the CV; today we look at the Teaching Statement. An expanded and updated version of this post can now be found in Chapter 25 of my book, The Professor Is In: The Essential.
Applying to Graduate School: Writing a Compelling Personal Statement. Reprinted by permission of Psi Chi Honor Society. Bette L. Bottoms and Kari L. Nysse. An Example of English Teaching Philosophy Every teacher is a personality and has his or her own philosophy about teaching and learning.
I spent my life travelling, studying, and teaching in such culturally diverse countries like China, Australia, Cyprus, Papua New Guinea, Lithuania, Denmark, Poland, Italy, UK, Russia, Germany, United States, Brazil, Thailand, Singapore, and a few more .
A philosophy of education statement, sometimes called a teaching statement, should be a staple in every teacher's portfolio. For elementary school teachers, the statement is an opportunity to define what teaching means to you, and allows you to describe how and .