The Nigerian society is currently undergoing rapid socio-economic and political changes that are bound to affect the status-quo of the presently existing normative and value system in the nation. The objectives of this essay are to enable students to know what norms and values are the relationship between norms and values, types of norms and values, the roles of conformity and sanctions and the impact of norms and values to national development. Human beings are born into an ongoing society which has already institutionalised patterns. Individuals in the society are constantly involved in social interaction through what is known as social action.
Saul McLeodupdated Lawrence Kohlberg agreed with Piaget's theory of moral development in principle but wanted to develop his ideas further. In each case, he presented a choice to be considered, for example, between the rights of some authority and the needs of some deserving individual who is being unfairly treated.
Doctors said a new drug might save her. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist, and the Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug, and this was much more than the Heinz could afford.
Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. He explained to the chemist that his wife was dying and asked if he could have the drug cheaper or pay the rest of the money later.
The chemist refused, saying that he had discovered the drug and was going to make money from it. Kohlberg asked a series of questions such as: Should Heinz have stolen the drug?
Would it change anything if Heinz did not love his wife?
What if the person dying was a stranger, would it make any difference? Should the police arrest the chemist for murder if the woman died? By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions, Kohlberg hoped to discover how moral reasoning changed as people grew older.
The sample comprised 72 Chicago boys aged 10—16 years, 58 of whom were followed up at three-yearly intervals for 20 years Kohlberg, Each boy was given a 2-hour interview based on the ten dilemmas.
What Kohlberg was mainly interested in was not whether the boys judged the action right or wrong, but the reasons given for the decision. He found that these reasons tended to change as the children got older.
He identified three distinct levels of moral reasoning each with two sub-stages. People can only pass through these levels in the order listed. Each new stage replaces the reasoning typical of the earlier stage. Not everyone achieves all the stages.
This essay highlights examples from history, literature, and medical ethics as one small step toward filling this void. Introduction Even the best pedagogical and interpersonal relationships can. Ethics Paper Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Ethics is a cross-cutting issue that touches human life in all aspects. In the field of counseling, psychiatrists are expected to adhere to stipulated codes of ethics while offering therapeutic services to their clients. Mutual interpersonal expectations. Often referred to as the ethic of justice b. Postconventional and principled level – universal moral principles as its focus – includes 2 stages 1.
Instead, our moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules. Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions. Obedience and Punishment Orientation.
If a person is punished, they must have done wrong. At this stage, children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities.
Different individuals have different viewpoints. Level 2 - Conventional morality At the conventional level most adolescents and adultswe begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models. Authority is internalized but not questioned, and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs.
Therefore, answers relate to the approval of others. Maintaining the Social Order. Level 3 - Post-conventional morality Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice.
According to Kohlberg this level of moral reasoning is as far as most people get. That is to say, most people take their moral views from those around them and only a minority think through ethical principles for themselves.
Social Contract and Individual Rights. The issues are not always clear-cut.The participants in this study believed that, for nursing to be improved in Slovenia, nurses need a body of knowledge, human and moral values and commitment to their work that will above all be expressed in human interpersonal relationships.
Free essay on The Interpersonal Divide & Science Fiction. Technological advances have had many unforeseen consequences.
People were spending less and less time together, people were communicating in a new way and moral codes were changing. Was it only coincidence these changes were happening at the same time, and as rapidly, as the newest. Sexual ethics or sex ethics (also called sexual morality) is the study of human sexuality and the expression of human sexual behavior.
Sexual ethics seeks to understand and evaluate the moral conduct of interpersonal relationships and sexual activities from social, cultural, and . Dispositional Essay_____Being an educator means being responsible for the intr. We will write a custom essay sample on Interpersonal Moral Codes specifically for you for only $ $/page.
Issues for future research are iden tified, and implications of these alternative interpersonal moral codes for other domains of interpersonal functioning are suggested. View Show abstract.