Literature review on employee engagement and retention

Motivational salience Motivation as a desire to perform an action is usually defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase". This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal gangliaand mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways. Activated "seeking" behavior, such as locomotor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward.

Literature review on employee engagement and retention

Executive Summary Employee engagement is the emotional and psychological commitment employees have towards the organisation and its goals. Organisations with an engaged workforce produce better business outcomes than those with lower levels of engagement. Kelly actively promotes the cause for employee engagement by going to great lengths to retain talent, and ensuring that their staff feels positive about working for the company — this ensures optimal productivity.

Achieving an engaged workforce requires senior leaders to communicate constructively with employees and allow them to work within their areas of strength; provide regular feedback on their progress; and to consider them holistically, giving due respect to their personal lives, which affect their ability to work optimally.

Generational differences in the workforce require that multi-faceted engagement strategies be implemented, so as to cater for employees who are in different stages of their personal and professional lives.

Globally, engagement levels are low: Improving engagement levels requires senior leaders to commission regular surveys to measure engagement, and act upon the findings so that employees feel the effects of their input.

Such investment in engagement ultimately yields benefits for employees and organisations alike. What is Employee Engagement? Employee engagement is an important concept for businesses: Companies with high levels of employee engagement outperform those with lower levels of engagement, all other factors being equal.

There are numerous definitions and conceptualisations of what employee engagement is, and what it is not. Employees may be happy at work, but this does not necessarily mean that they are working optimally for the benefit of the organisation.

In a similar way, a satisfied employee may consistently show up for each working day and seem content, but might not show any initiative, or go the extra mile to do his or her job with excellence.

It is undisputed that a high level of engagement is desirable, and that involvement, passion, enthusiasm, commitment, focused effort and energy are necessary to achieving an engaged workforce.

An employee who is engaged has an emotional commitment to the goals of the organisation, and, out of his or her own volition, takes positive action to further the success, reputation and interests of the company.

Emotional commitment suggests that employees care about their work and the success of the company: Engagement includes the psychological state and behavioural outcomes that lead to better performance.

Employees who are engaged speak positively about their organisation to co-workers, potential employees and customers; they have a sense of belonging and a desire to be part of the organisation; they are motivated and exert effort toward success in their jobs and for the company.

The antecedents of the requisite attitudes and behaviours centre around working conditions, and the ultimate consequence of engagement is attainment of organisational goals. The Gallup model of employee engagement posits a hierarchy of reflective questions, which ultimately measure the level of engagement within an organisation: The framework shows how workplace conditions, including the nature of the work e.

The nature of leadership has a direct effect on trust, which is a core requirement of an engaged workforce. Their model integrates important factors, such as the relationship between team members and supervisors, which contribute to engagement see figure 3.

A South African model of employee engagement Employee engagement is driven by three key factors: Employees with an infelicitous relationship with their managers are less likely to be fully engaged.

Similarly, employees who are not confident in the ability of senior management tend to be more disengaged. Finally, when employees feel pride in the contribution of their organisation to society, they are more engaged.

Engaged employees are enthusiastic, inspired, empowered and confident.

Literature review on employee engagement and retention

Engagement levels may differ from one sector of an organisational workforce to another. For example, the level of engagement of professionals who hold meetings in boardrooms may well differ from the employees who clean the offices and serve tea.

Harnessing the full benefit of high levels of employee engagement across the board requires a holistic and specialised strategy, led by senior leaders within an organisation, to accommodate all members of staff.Dear Apple and Mia, to develop your conceptual framework, as this article suggests, you will need to read relevant literature about your topic.

Welcome to EBSA’s website. We organized our content through usability testing and input from our key audiences, and created a user-friendly presentation to help you navigate the content. Rogers State University is a regional four-year university serving northeastern Oklahoma and the Tulsa metropolitan area.

Nov 08,  · Surveys measuring employee engagement have become increasingly common. Most major corporations now regularly survey their workforces. There is . The Impact of Employee Engagement Factors and Job Satisfaction On Turnover Intent.

Employee retention (versus employee turnover) refers to the continued employment of employees. Optimally, high-quality, productive employees are retained. Review of the Literature Employee Engagement. Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions..

The term is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence.

Motivation - Wikipedia