Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucosethe main type of sugar in the blood. What Happens in Diabetes?
Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar glucose to enter cells to produce energy.
Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes.
Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications.
Symptoms Type 1 diabetes Living with type 1 juvenile diabetes and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child.
Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing islet, or islets of Langerhans cells in the pancreas.
Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin.
Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach pancreas. The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream.
Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.
The role of glucose Glucose — a sugar — is a main source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two major sources: Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin. Your liver stores glucose as glycogen.
When your glucose levels are low, such as when you haven't eaten in a while, the liver breaks down the stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose levels within a normal range. In type 1 diabetes, there's no insulin to let glucose into the cells, so sugar builds up in your bloodstream.
This can cause life-threatening complications. Risk factors Some known risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing the condition.
The presence of certain genes indicates an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The incidence of type 1 diabetes tends to increase as you travel away from the equator. Although type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, it appears at two noticeable peaks. The first peak occurs in children between 4 and 7 years old, and the second is in children between 10 and 14 years old.
Complications Over time, type 1 diabetes complications can affect major organs in your body, including heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Maintaining a normal blood sugar level can dramatically reduce the risk of many complications.
Eventually, diabetes complications may be disabling or even life-threatening. Heart and blood vessel disease.
Diabetes dramatically increases your risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain anginaheart attack, stroke, narrowing of the arteries atherosclerosis and high blood pressure. Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels capillaries that nourish your nerves, especially in the legs.
This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Poorly controlled blood sugar could cause you to eventually lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs.
Damage to the nerves that affect the gastrointestinal tract can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, erectile dysfunction may be an issue. The kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters that filter waste from your blood.
Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina diabetic retinopathypotentially causing blindness. Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision conditions, such as cataracts and glaucoma. Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increases the risk of various foot complications.Oct 22, · Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas.
Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells.
Type 1 diabetes can't be prevented, and there is no real way to predict who will get it. Nothing that either a parent or the child did caused the disease. Once a person has type 1 diabetes, it does not go away and requires lifelong treatment. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can develop very quickly (over a few days or weeks), particularly in children.
In older adults, the symptoms can often take longer to develop (a few months). Apr 19, · Diabetes is an incurable condition in which the body cannot control blood sugar levels, because of problems with the hormone insulin. There are two main variations of the illness, Type I and Type II.
Golimumab (sold as Simponi) is an immune system modulator, which has been approved in the United States and many other countries for treatment of several autoimmune diseases, so testing it on type-1 diabetes makes a lot of sense.