Some of the major environmental problems are as follows: Loss of Biodiversity 5.
Select this link to see the table of contents for this issue. Select this link to order this issure of ATF. Efforts to deal with these problems, however, have been handicapped by a real failure to understand their nature and possible remedies.
Conventional wisdom views the people of this region as highly irresponsible toward the environment and looks to the international community to save them from themselves. It tends to blame all of the region's environmental problems on rapid population growth and poverty.
Yet, there is no conclusive evidence that Africans have been particularly oblivious to the quality of the environment, nor has the international community shown any genuine concern for it until recently.
Clearly, protecting the environment of Sub-Saharan Africa is an issue that needs to be examined more carefully and incorporated into an overall strategy of sustainable economic development. Formulating such a strategy will not be easy: In the closing years of the 20th century, virtually every country in this region is slipping on almost every index of development.
The heady post-independence period of the s and early s, when development was considered simply a matter of following a plan formulated by Western experts, has now been succeeded by a time of fiscal crises and international marginalization.
The region now finds itself afflicted the consequences of inappropriate policies, as well as by almost endemic political instability, an inability to manage its economies effectively, and an increasingly hostile external economic milieu.
As simple survival has become more problematical, it has become increasingly difficult to avoid overexploiting natural resources and degrading the environment. Analysts are now concerned that this will compromise the prospects for sustainable development in the near future.
This will permit a detailed investigation of the environmental problems caused by humans in both rural and urban areas, along with a suggestive comparison between those problems and ones caused solely by nature.
It will then be possible to look at the question of environmental protection in terms of sustainable development in the region and to suggest the roles that the state and international assistance ought to play.
The present situation offers an important opportunity to redirect development strategy in ways that will not only improve the social and economic well-being of people in this region but also enhance the quality of the environment in which they live.
Factors Predisposing to Environmental Degradation Three factors strongly increase the threat of environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa: Throughout the region, the end of the colonial period saw a tremendous expansion of social services, especially in the areas of education and health care.
This led to a sharp decline in infant mortality and to a rapid increase n population. During the last 25 years, annual growth rates of 2. An increase of this magnitude within a relatively short time span implies a rising proportion of children in the population and thus a heavier burden on those who must care for them.
This has led to mass migration to the cities particularly by adult males and other efforts to supplement family income through non-farm employment.
As a result, there has been less time for farm work, and more labor-saving but environmentally harmful shortcuts are being taken. In forested areas, for instance, cleared land is used continuously, even though allowing it to lie fallow from time to time would result in greater productivity and less degradation.
In dryland regions, cultivation has been extended into marginal lands that are more easily cleared and cultivated. Turning to the second factor, countries in sub-Saharan Africa incurred large foreign debts in their efforts to industrialize and to provide their rapidly growing populations with modern social services.
Most of these loans have been long-term ones from official sources and on concessional terms; as the need for borrowing has become more urgent, however, countries have turned increasingly to private, short-term loans at market rates. High dependence on the export of primary products left sub-Saharan African countries vulnerable to the long decline of commodity prices that began in the s.
The total value of the region's agricultural exports has fallen dramatically, with the decline averaging 0. For some countries the decline has been even more pronounced. Between andthe total external debt rose from 27 percent to 97 percent of gross national product and from 97 percent to percent of exports.
This has entailed not only a drastic compression of imports and a sharp devaluation of national currencies but also the retrenchment of a sizable portion of the wage- and salary-earning population. As living conditions deteriorated, more people turned to survival agriculture, both in urban and rural areas.
At the same time, sharply rising prices for imported energy products forced many families to fall back on wood and charcoal for their domestic energy needs. Clearly, these developments put acute strain on the environment everywhere in the region.
The performance of most African governments in implementing the reforms necessary to turn their economies around has also been a source of serious concern. The international community spent the years immediately following independence rationalizing and sometimes applauding the necessity for authoritarian one-party or military rule.
Over time, these regimes have become inordinately corrupt and have managed the countries' economies without due concern for transparency and accountability. In most countries, this has led to a high level of political instability and social alienation that has impaired both development efforts and environmental protection.
There is a growing realization that economic reforms cannot be achieved without a much greater degree of decentralization and democratization in the political process.
Much of the debate about sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa has focused on the region's severe poverty. There is no question that poverty has become widespread.
Major Environmental Issues Facing Zimbabwe Essay - Major Environmental Issues facing Zimbabwe Zimbabwe is the second most industrialized country in SADC, after South Africa. Industries are concentrated around Harare, with ore smelters located close to the ore sources (principally along the Great Dyke). Major Environmental Issues facing Zimbabwe Zimbabwe is the second most industrialized country in SADC, after South Africa. Industries are concentrated around Harare, with ore smelters located close to the ore sources (principally along the Great Dyke). Some of the major environmental problems are as follows: 1. Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming 2. Desertification 3. Deforestation 4. Loss of Biodiversity 5. Disposal of Wastes. 1. Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming: All the three physical phenomena are related.
The World Bank estimates that between andthe number of persons living below the poverty line will rise from million to million. For neo-Malthusians, this poverty stems directly from overpopulation; in their view, the two will inevitably lead to an increase in land fragmentation, over-utilization of agricultural and grazing land, more frequent famines, lower life expectancy, and considerable environmental degradation.SLIDESHOW - Here is a list of 10 environmental justice issues affecting the black community that should be given full attention by all Americans.
Major Environmental Issues Facing Zimbabwe Syggrou Grove Environmental Issues ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING INDIVIDUAL ESSAY In the north suburbs of Athens, the capital of Greece, a grove of almost acres arises in Marousi, Melissia and Kifisia.
Major Environmental Issues facing Zimbabwe Zimbabwe is the second most industrialized country in SADC, after South Africa.
Industries are concentrated around Harare, with ore smelters located close to the ore sources (principally along the Great Dyke). The Natural Resources Defense Council works to safeguard the earth - its people, its plants and animals, and the natural systems on which all life depends.
New debt repayment plan for Zimbabwe. September 20, Zimra reports 46 graft cases. September 20, Companies & Markets. British investors eye ZSE counters. September 22, Zim facing environmental disaster. Sixty-one years after the lake was commissioned, the water reservoir has been shrinking in both size and usefulness .
Rampant deforestation, poaching, air and water pollution (especially from agricultural and industrial runoffs), soil erosion and land degradation (poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution), etc.
remain some of the major environmental issues facing Zimbabwe today.