Recall that the Athenian court held Socrates on trial for the crimes of not believing in God and for corrupting the youth. Civil disobedience requires the intentional breaking of an unjust law in order to show how it unfairly legalizes difference against a minority. Martin Luther King Jr.
I I shall not give up philosophy, even if the city commands me to do so. No reconciliation between I and II is possible, and Socrates holds contradictory views. Young, 2 Young holds that option 1 is unsatisfactory for the following reasons: It seems then that Young holds a modified version of 2.
Young has greatly abbreviated the passages in question. What do the passages between which the tension arises actually say?
I will not yield to any man contrary to what is right, for fear of death, even if I should die at once for not yielding. Apology 32a If you said to me in this regard: Socrates states in the Apology that he will not yield to any man contrary to what is right.
He expresses in the Crito that it is right to obey the orders of the city.
How can these passages be understood in a harmonious way? First, Socrates believes that the gods exercise some degree or kind of control in the course of events at hand.
Let the matter proceed as the gods may wish, but I must obey the law and make my defense. Apology 19a I leave it to you and the god to judge me in the way that will be best for me and you.
Apology 35d But now that as you can see for yourselves, I was faced with what one might think and what is generally though to be the worst of all evils my divine sign has not opposed me.
Apology 40b What has happened to me now has not happened of itself, but it is clear to me that it was better for me to die now and to escape from trouble. Apology 41d Second, Socrates believes that his philosophizing is commanded by the god.
Apology 23b When the god ordered me, as I thought and believed, to live the life of a philosopher, to examine myself and others Apology 28ea This is what the god orders me to do Apology 30a There is no greater blessing for the city than my service to the god.
Apology 30a It is to fulfill some such function that I believe the god has placed me in the city Apology 30e To do this has, as I say, been enjoined upon me by the god.
Apology 33c Third, Socrates believes he must obey the command of the god to philosophize. I will obey the god rather than you Apology 29d It is impossible for me to keep quiet because that means disobeying the god Apology 38a Fourth, Socrates believes that he must do the right thing even when faced with death.
You are wrong, sir, if you think that a man who is any good at all should take into account the risk of life or death; he should look to this only in his actions, that what he does is right or wrong, whether he is acting like a good or a bad man.
Apology 28b Wherever a man has taken a position that he believes to be best, or has been placed by his commander, there he must I think remain and face danger, without a thought for death or anything else, rather than disgrace. Apology 30b I will not yield to any man contrary to what is right, for fear of death, even if I should die at once for not yielding.
Those Laws pose a series of questions to Socrates that he is more or less stumped to answer. First, one must never do wrong.
Crito 49a-b Second, one must never return wrong for wrong. Crito 49d Third, one ought to obey the laws of the city. Crito 51 It is this third feature of the Crito that creates the apparent contradiction.
This is the component that must be carefully worded.There are at least four reasons that legitimately motivate a cautious, nuanced understanding of Socrates’ position concerning one’s moral obligation to civil law.
First, the question under consideration in the Crito differs from the matter under consideration in the Apology with which it apparently contradicts. Socrates and Legal Obligation (review) Paul Woodruff Journal of the History of Philosophy, Volume 21, Number 1, January , there was no established law but the law of Athens from which Socrates could have enjoyed full benefits.
As Allen puts it, the Crito establishes a moral obligation to obey positive law, whereas the Apology admits. What are Socrates' views on the relation between moral, political and legal obligation?
Should one obey the law just because it is the law? What does Socrates think? What do you think?. right,' it does not follow that humans have a moral obligation to obey professional codes, law, religious ethics.
Keywords law and justice, Socrates'/Plato's phlilosophy of law, moral limits of law/legal obligation, Heidegger on Plato on law, ontology of law, ancient origins of modern legal positivism, doing versus suffering injustice.
socrates' moral obligation to civil law In the Crito, Socrates gives an explanation about why he must remain in his jail cell and accept his sentence by using moral reasoning. The most important facet in his argument is the claim (which the interlocutor Crito quickly agrees to) that it is never justified to do evil.4/4(1).
Discuss with students their own sympathies for these two characters and the moral principles they represent. To what extent does Crito equate the good with whatever is good for him and his friends?
In what sense is The Law that Socrates invokes the same as what we refer to as "conscience"? Is there similar evidence of an obligation to.